Federal Circuit Applies Change of Venue "Convenience Factors" for DJ Jurisdiction
Indeed the record supports a judgment that the dispute between Micron and MOSAID is a case and controversy within the purview of declaratory judgment jurisdiction. Beginning in 2001, after receiving several threats itself, Micron watched MOSAID sue each of the other leading DRAM manufacturers. MOSAID devotes considerable attention to the four years that have elapsed since the last letter. This lapse in time is unavailing because MOSAID, during this period, was busy negotiating with other leading DRAM manufacturers.
Nonetheless, threatening letters and behavioral observations are not Micron's only evidence about the authenticity of this dispute. MOSAID's recent public statements and annual reports also confirm its intent to continue an aggressive litigation strategy. In sum, the record evidence amply supports a real and substantial dispute between these parties. The record evidence at the time of the filing in the California district court strongly suggested that MOSAID would sue Micron soon. Indeed, that suit, filed only one day later, was actually pending in Texas at the time that the California district court made its ruling. Thus, the parties in this dispute are really just contesting the location and right to choose the forum for their inevitable suit.
The Declaratory Judgment Act exists precisely for situations such as this. "The purpose of the Declaratory Judgment Act . . . in patent cases is to provide the allegedly infringing party relief from uncertainty and delay regarding its legal rights." Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. v. Releasomers, Inc., 824 F.2d 953, 956 (Fed. Cir. 1987). . . .
Because satisfaction of the reasonable apprehension of suit test is no longer a necessary criterion for declaratory judgment jurisdiction, the district court did not weigh the facts of this case under the correct standard. The facts alleged under all the circumstances show a substantial controversy between parties with adverse legal
interests of sufficient immediacy and reality to warrant the issuance of a declaratory judgment. In short, upon application of the proper legal standard articulated in MedImmune, this court discerns that the California district court has jurisdiction. Further, this court finds that the objectives of the Declaratory Judgment Act would be met by allowing the case to be heard by the California court, rather than by deferring to the forum of the later-filed suit.
Whether intended or not, the now more lenient legal standard facilitates or enhances the availability of declaratory judgment jurisdiction in patent cases. Sony Elecs. Inc., v. Guardian Media Techs., Ltd., 497 F.3d 1271 (Fed. Cir. 2007) (remand of district court's dismissal of declaratory judgment action); Teva Pharms. USA, Inc., Novartis Pharms. Corp., 482 F.3d 1330 (Fed. Cir. 2007) (reversal of district court's dismissal of declaratory judgment action); SanDisk Corp., 480 F.3d 1372 (remand of district court's dismissal of declaratory judgment action). The resulting ease of achieving declaratory judgment jurisdiction in patent cases is accompanied by unique challenges. For instance, the ease of obtaining a declaratory judgment could occasion a forum-seeking race to the courthouse between accused infringers and patent holders. Thus, in cases such as this with competing forum interests, the trial court needs to consider the "convenience factors" found in a transfer analysis under 28 U.S.C. § 1404(a).
. . . Section 1404(a) of Title 28 provides: "For the convenience of parties and witnesses, in the interest of justice, a district court may transfer any civil action to any other district or division where it might have been brought." The general rule favors the forum of the first-filed action, whether or not it is a declaratory judgment action. Genentech, 998 F.2d at 937. The trial courts have discretion to make exceptions to this general rule in the interest of justice or expediency, as in any issue of choice of forum. Id. These exceptions are not rare. Id. . . .
. . . These "convenience factors" take on added significance in light of the newly understood legal environment surrounding declaratory judgment jurisdiction in patent cases. Given the greater likelihood of jurisdiction for declaratory judgment filers, these potential defendants will have greater opportunity to race to the courthouse to seek a forum more convenient and amenable to their legal interests. By the same token, patent holders will similarly race to protect their convenience and other perceived advantages. Therefore, the district court judge faced with reaching a jurisdictional decision about a declaratory judgment action with an impending infringement action either filed or on the near horizon should not reach a decision based on any categorical rules.
The first-filed suit rule, for instance, will not always yield the most convenient and suitable forum. Therefore, the trial court weighing jurisdiction additionally must consider the real underlying dispute: the convenience and suitability of competing forums. In sum, the trial court must weigh the factors used in a transfer analysis as for any other transfer motion. In other words, this court notes that when the discretionary determination is presented after the filing of an infringement action, the jurisdiction question is basically the same as a transfer action under § 1404(a).
The convenience and availability of witnesses, absence of jurisdiction over all necessary or desirable parties, possibility of consolidation with related litigation, or considerations relating to the interest of justice must be evaluated to ensure the case receives attention in the most appropriate forum. Eventually, robust consideration of these factors will reduce the incentives for a race to the courthouse because both parties will realize that the case will be heard or transferred to the most convenient or suitable forum.
With an eye to the convenience factors, the Northern District of California is the more appropriate forum for the dispute between Micron and MOSAID. Although MOSAID is a Canadian company, its U.S. operations are based out of the Northern District of California. Both Micron and MOSAID do business both in California and Texas, so this does not weigh in favor of either forum. Also, the record does not show that availability of witnesses or jurisdiction over desirable parties favors Texas over California. While the well-known patent forum of the Eastern District of Texas has heard cases involving some of the same patents, the record does not show any ongoing litigation requiring consolidation. Therefore, this factor also does not suggest a better forum in Texas. On balance, the jurisdiction of the first filed declaratory judgment action appears to be the more convenient forum for both parties.
. . . As noted earlier, the trial court applied a standard for declaratory judgment jurisdiction that the Supreme Court has altered, resulting in an error of law. Moreover, the trial court needed to evaluate the "convenience factors" before effectively transferring the case to another jurisdiction. Applying the relevant convenience factors, it would be an abuse of discretion to transfer the action. Accordingly, this court reverses and remands back to the district court.